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Large species such as the Sumatran tiger , rhinoceros, orangutan, Asian elephant , and leopard were once abundant as far east as Bali, but numbers and distribution have dwindled drastically.

Having been long separated from the continental landmasses, Sulawesi, Nusa Tenggara, and Maluku have developed their unique flora and fauna. The country has a range of sea and coastal ecosystems, including beaches , dunes, estuaries, mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, coastal mudflats, tidal flats, algal beds, and small island ecosystems.

British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace described a dividing line Wallace Line between the distribution of Indonesia's Asian and Australasian species.

Flora and fauna on the west of the line are generally Asian, while east from Lombok they are increasingly Australian until the tipping point at the Weber Line.

In his book, The Malay Archipelago , Wallace described numerous species unique to the area. Indonesia's large and growing population and rapid industrialisation present serious environmental issues.

They are often given a lower priority due to high poverty levels and weak, under-resourced governance. The report also indicates that Indonesia's performance is generally below average in both regional and global context.

Expansion of the palm oil industry requiring significant changes to the natural ecosystems is the one primary factor behind much of Indonesia's deforestation.

The International Union for Conservation of Nature IUCN identified species of mammals as threatened , and 15 as critically endangered, including the Bali starling , [] Sumatran orangutan , [] and Javan rhinoceros.

Several studies consider Indonesia to be at severe risk from the projected effects of climate change. That figure is predicted to rise further by the end of the century.

Indonesia is a republic with a presidential system. Following the fall of the New Order in , political and governmental structures have undergone sweeping reforms, with four constitutional amendments revamping the executive, legislative and judicial branches.

The president may serve a maximum of two consecutive five-year terms. Its main functions are supporting and amending the constitution, inaugurating and impeaching the president, [] [] and formalising broad outlines of state policy.

Reforms since have markedly increased its role in national governance, [] while the DPD is a new chamber for matters of regional management.

The Supreme Court of Indonesia Mahkamah Agung is the highest level of the judicial branch, and hears final cessation appeals and conducts case reviews.

Other courts include the Constitutional Court Mahkamah Konstitusi that listens to constitutional and political matters and the Religious Court Pengadilan Agama that deals with codified Islamic Law sharia cases.

Since , Indonesia has had a multi-party system. In all legislative elections since the fall of the New Order , no political party has managed to win an overall majority of seats.

At the national level, Indonesians did not elect a president until Since then, the president is elected for a five-year term, as are the party-aligned members of the DPR and the non-partisan DPD.

In , the Constitutional Court ruled that legislative and presidential elections are to be held simultaneously, starting in Indonesia has several levels of subdivisions.

The first level is that of the provinces, with five out of a total of 34 having a special status. This number has evolved, with the most recent change being the split of North Kalimantan from East Kalimantan in The third level is that of the districts kecamatan , distrik in Papua , or kapanewon and kemantren in Yogyakarta , and the fourth is of the villages either desa , kelurahan , kampung , nagari in West Sumatra, or gampong in Aceh.

The village is the lowest level of government administration. It is divided into several community groups rukun warga , RW , which are further divided into neighbourhood groups rukun tetangga , RT.

In Java, the village desa is divided into smaller units called dusun or dukuh hamlets , which are the same as RW. Following the implementation of regional autonomy measures in , regencies and cities have become chief administrative units, responsible for providing most government services.

The village administration level is the most influential on a citizen's daily life and handles matters of a village or neighbourhood through an elected village head lurah or kepala desa.

Aceh, Jakarta, Yogyakarta, Papua , and West Papua have greater legislative privileges and a higher degree of autonomy from the central government than the other provinces.

A conservative Islamic territory, Aceh has the right to create some aspects of an independent legal system implementing sharia. Indonesia maintains diplomatic missions abroad, including 95 embassies.

Indonesia was a significant battleground during the Cold War. Numerous attempts by the United States and the Soviet Union, [] [] and China to some degree, [] culminated in the coup attempt and subsequent upheaval that led to a reorientation of foreign policy.

Quiet alignment with the West while maintaining a non-aligned stance has characterised Indonesia's foreign policy since then. In common with most of the Muslim world, Indonesia does not have diplomatic relations with Israel and has actively supported Palestine.

However, observers have pointed out that Indonesia has ties with Israel, albeit discreetly. It marked the first time in UN history that a member state had attempted a withdrawal.

Defence spending in the national budget was 0. Since then, territorial lines have formed the basis of all TNI branches' structure, aimed at maintaining domestic stability and deterring foreign threats.

Political reforms in included the removal of the TNI's formal representation from the legislature.

Nevertheless, its political influence remains, albeit at a reduced level. Since independence, the country has struggled to maintain unity against local insurgencies and separatist movements.

Indonesia has a mixed economy in which both the private sector and government play vital roles. The debt ratio to GDP is Over time, the structure of the economy has changed considerably.

The growth, however, ended with the Asian financial crisis , which affected the economy severely. It caused a real GDP contraction by The economy reached its low point in mid with only 0.

Relatively steady inflation [] and an increase in GDP deflator and the Consumer Price Index [] have contributed to strong economic growth in recent years.

Indonesia has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas , coal , tin , copper , gold , and nickel , while agriculture produces rice , palm oil , tea , coffee , cacao , medicinal plants , spices , and rubber.

These commodities make up a large portion of the country's exports, with palm oil and coal briquettes as the leading export commodities.

In addition to refined and crude petroleum as the main imports, telephones, vehicle parts and wheat cover the majority of additional imports.

In , the transport sector generated about 5. The road transport system is predominant, with a total length of , kilometres , miles as of [update].

Most of the railways are in Java, used for both freight and passenger transport, such as local commuter rail services complementing the inter-city rail network in several cities.

In the late s, Jakarta and Palembang were the first cities in Indonesia to have rapid transit systems, with more planned for other cities in the future.

Ngurah Rai International Airport and Juanda International Airport are the country's second-and third-busiest airport respectively.

Garuda Indonesia , the country's flag carrier since , is one of the world's leading airlines and a member of the global airline alliance SkyTeam.

In , Indonesia was the world's 9th largest energy producer with 4, terawatt-hours Furthermore, the country has the potential for geothermal, solar, wind, biomass and ocean energy.

The country's largest dam, Jatiluhur , has several purposes including the provision of hydroelectric power generation, water supply, flood control, irrigation and aquaculture.

Indonesia's expenditure on science and technology is relatively low, at less than 0. It later became widely used in several countries. Indonesia has a long history in developing military and small commuter aircraft as the only country in Southeast Asia to build and produce aircraft.

With its state-owned company, the Indonesian Aerospace PT. Dirgantara Indonesia , Indonesia has provided components for Boeing and Airbus.

Habibie played a vital role in this achievement. In the s, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate a satellite system called Palapa , [] a series of communication satellites owned by Indosat Ooredoo.

In , Indonesia received Since , Wonderful Indonesia has been the slogan of the country's international marketing campaign to promote tourism.

Nature and culture are prime attractions of Indonesian tourism. The former can boast a unique combination of a tropical climate, a vast archipelago, and a long stretch of beaches, and the latter complement those with a rich cultural heritage reflecting Indonesia's dynamic history and ethnic diversity.

Forests on Sumatra and Kalimantan are examples of popular destinations, such as the Orangutan wildlife reserve. The ancient Borobudur and Prambanan temples as well as Toraja and Bali , with its traditional festivities, are some of the popular destinations for cultural tourism.

The census recorded Indonesia's population as The spread of the population is uneven throughout the archipelago with a varying habitat and level of development , ranging from the megacity of Jakarta to uncontacted tribes in Papua.

Indonesia is an ethnically diverse country, with around distinct native ethnic groups. The Javanese are the largest ethnic group, constituting The country's official language is Indonesian , a variant of Malay based on its prestige dialect , which for centuries had been the lingua franca of the archipelago.

It was promoted by nationalists in the s and achieved official status under the name Bahasa Indonesia in Most Indonesians also speak at least one of more than local languages, [3] often as their first language.

Most belong to the Austronesian language family , while there are over Papuan languages spoken in eastern Indonesia.

In , Dutch and other Europeans Totok , Eurasians , and derivative people like the Indos , numbered , or 0. Despite the Dutch presence for almost years, the Dutch language never had a substantial number of speakers or official status.

Today, there is some degree of fluency by either educated members of the oldest generation or legal professionals, [] as specific law codes are still only available in Dutch.

Religion in Indonesia [5]. While the constitution stipulates religious freedom, [] [] the government officially recognises only six religions : Islam , Protestantism , Roman Catholicism , Hinduism , Buddhism , and Confucianism ; [] [] with indigenous religions only partly acknowledged.

The natives of the Indonesian archipelago originally practised indigenous animism and dynamism , beliefs that are common to Austronesian people.

They have had a significant impact on how other faiths are practised, evidenced by a large proportion of people—such as the Javanese abangan , Balinese Hindus , and Dayak Christians—practising a less orthodox , syncretic form of their religion.

Hindu influences reached the archipelago as early as the first century CE. The archipelago has witnessed the rise and fall of powerful and influential Hindu and Buddhist empires such as Majapahit , Sailendra , Srivijaya , and Mataram.

Though no longer a majority, Hinduism and Buddhism remain defining influences in Indonesian culture. Islam was introduced by Sunni traders of the Shafi'i fiqh , as well as Sufi traders from the Indian subcontinent and southern Arabian peninsula as early as the 8th century CE.

Catholicism was brought by Portuguese traders and missionaries such as Jesuit Francis Xavier , who visited and baptised several thousand locals.

Protestantism is mostly a result of Calvinist and Lutheran missionary efforts during the Dutch colonial era. There was a sizable Jewish presence in the archipelago until , mostly Dutch and some Baghdadi Jews.

Since most have left after Indonesia proclaimed independence, Judaism was never accorded official status, and only a tiny number of Jews remain today, mostly in Jakarta and Surabaya.

The invocation of the first principle of Indonesia's philosophical foundation, Pancasila the belief in the one and only God often serves as a reminder of religious tolerance, [] though instances of intolerance have occurred.

An overwhelming majority of Indonesians consider religion to be essential, [] and its role is present in almost all aspects of society, including politics, education, marriage, and public holidays.

Education is compulsory for 12 years. Government expenditure on healthcare is about 3. In recent decades, there have been remarkable improvements such as rising life expectancy from This situation creates a gap in wealth, unemployment rate, and health between densely populated islands and economic centres such as Sumatra and Java and sparsely populated, disadvantaged areas such as Maluku and Papua.

The cultural history of the Indonesian archipelago spans more than two millennia. Influences from the Indian subcontinent , mainland China , the Middle East , Europe , [] [] and the Austronesian peoples have historically shaped the cultural, linguistic and religious makeup of the archipelago.

As a result, modern-day Indonesia has a multicultural, multilingual and multi-ethnic society, [3] [4] with a complex cultural mixture that differs significantly from the original indigenous cultures.

Indonesia currently holds ten items of UNESCO's Intangible Cultural Heritage , including a wayang puppet theatre, kris , batik , [] pencak silat , angklung , and the three genres of traditional Balinese dance.

Indonesian arts include both age-old art forms developed through centuries and a recently developed contemporary art.

Despite often displaying local ingenuity, Indonesian arts have absorbed foreign influences—most notably from India , the Arab world , China and Europe , as a result of contacts and interactions facilitated, and often motivated, by trade.

Their painting tradition started as classical Kamasan or Wayang style visual narrative, derived from visual art discovered on candi bas reliefs in eastern Java.

There have been numerous discoveries of megalithic sculptures in Indonesia. Between the 8th and 15th centuries, the Javanese civilisation has developed a refined stone sculpting art and architecture which was influenced by Hindu-Buddhist Dharmic civilisation.

The temples of Borobudur and Prambanan are among the most famous examples of the practice. As with the arts, Indonesian architecture has absorbed foreign influences that have brought cultural changes and profound effect on building styles and techniques.

The most dominant has traditionally been Indian ; however, Chinese, Arab, and European influences have also been significant.

Traditional carpentry, masonry, stone and woodwork techniques and decorations have thrived in vernacular architecture, with numbers of traditional houses' rumah adat styles that have been developed.

The traditional houses and settlements in the country vary by ethnic groups, and each has a specific custom and history. The music of Indonesia predates historical records.

Various indigenous tribes incorporate chants and songs accompanied by musical instruments in their rituals.

Angklung , kacapi suling , gong , gamelan , talempong , kulintang , and sasando are examples of traditional Indonesian instruments.

The diverse world of Indonesian music genres is the result of the musical creativity of its people, and subsequent cultural encounters with foreign influences.

These include gambus and qasida from the Middle East, [] keroncong from Portugal, [] and dangdut —one of the most popular music genres in Indonesia—with notable Hindi influence as well as Malay orchestras.

Indonesian dances have a diverse history, with more than 3, original dances. Scholars believe that they had their beginning in rituals and religious worship.

Indonesian dances derive its influences from the archipelago's prehistoric and tribal, Hindu-Buddhist, and Islamic periods. Recently, modern dances and urban teen dances have gained popularity due to the influence of Western culture, as well as those of Japan and South Korea to some extent.

Traditional dances, however, such as the Javanese , Sundanese , Minang , Balinese , Saman continue to be a living and dynamic tradition. Indonesia has various styles of clothing as a result of its long and rich cultural history.

The national costume has its origins in the indigenous culture of the country and traditional textile traditions. The Javanese Batik and Kebaya [] are arguably Indonesia's most recognised national costume, though they have Sundanese and Balinese origins as well.

People wear national and regional costumes during traditional weddings, formal ceremonies, music performances, government and official occasions, [] and they vary from traditional to modern attire.

Wayang , the Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese shadow puppet theatre display several mythological legends such as Ramayana and Mahabharata.

They incorporate humour and jest and often involve audiences in their performances. It is usually performed for traditional ceremonies and festivals, [] [] and based on semi-historical Minangkabau legends and love story.

Notable theatre, dance, and drama troupe such as Teater Koma are famous as it often portrays social and political satire of Indonesian society.

The first film produced in the archipelago was Loetoeng Kasaroeng , [] a silent film by Dutch director L.

The film industry expanded after independence, with six films made in rising to 58 in Usmar Ismail , who made significant imprints in the s and s, is generally considered to be the pioneer of Indonesian films.

Independent filmmaking was a rebirth of the film industry since , where films started addressing previously banned topics, such as religion, race, and love.

It hands out the Citra Award , the film industry's most prestigious award. From to , the festival was held annually and then discontinued until its revival in Media freedom increased considerably after the fall of the New Order, during which the Ministry of Information monitored and controlled domestic media and restricted foreign media.

By the early 21st century, the improved communications system had brought television signals to every village, and people can choose from up to 11 channels.

The number of printed publications has increased significantly since Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early s.

Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT. Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.

Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition.

Balai Pustaka , the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in to promote the development of indigenous literature.

Many scholars consider the s and s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour.

Spices notably chilli , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are ubiquitous and considered as national dishes.

The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions.

Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup , the world team championship of men's and women's badminton.

Along with weightlifting , it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally.

Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league. Indonesia's first appearance in the AFC Asian Cup was in and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments.

They, however, failed to progress through the next stage in all occasions. Other popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.

Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in the Southeast Asian Games , with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors.

In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the Southeast Asian Games ten times since , [] most recently in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Republic of Indonesia. Country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. National emblem. Further information: Names of Indonesia.

Main article: History of Indonesia. Main article: Dutch East Indies. Sukarno left and Hatta right , Indonesia's founding fathers and the first President and Vice President.

Main articles: Geography of Indonesia and List of islands of Indonesia. Main article: Climate of Indonesia.

Main article: Geology of Indonesia. See also: Volcanoes of Indonesia. Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia.

Species endemic to Indonesia. Clockwise from top: Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon.

Main article: Environment of Indonesia. Main article: Politics of Indonesia. Main articles: List of political parties in Indonesia and Elections in Indonesia.

Joko Widodo 7th President of Indonesia. Ma'ruf Amin 13th Vice President of Indonesia. Main article: Subdivisions of Indonesia.

North Sumatra. West Sumatra. Riau Islands. Bangka Belitung. South Sumatra. West Java. Central Java. East Java. West Nusa Tenggara.

East Nusa Tenggara. West Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan. North Kalimantan. East Kalimantan. South Kalimantan. North Sulawesi.

North Maluku. Central Sulawesi. West Sulawesi. South Sulawesi. Southeast Sulawesi. West Papua. Main article: Foreign relations of Indonesia.

Indonesian Armed Forces. Main articles: Economy of Indonesia and Economic history of Indonesia. Main article: Transport in Indonesia.

Major transport modes in Indonesia. Main article: Energy in Indonesia. Main article: Science and technology in Indonesia. Main article: Tourism in Indonesia.

Main articles: Demographics of Indonesia and Indonesians. See also: List of Indonesian cities by population and List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia.

Largest cities in Indonesia inter-census survey. Main article: Religion in Indonesia. Protestantism 7. Roman Catholicism 3.

Hinduism 1. Buddhism 0. Confucianism 0. Folk 0. Main articles: Education in Indonesia and Health in Indonesia. Main article: Human rights in Indonesia.

Main article: Culture of Indonesia. See also: Public holidays in Indonesia. Main articles: Indonesian art and Architecture of Indonesia.

Indonesian music and dance. Main article: Cinema of Indonesia. Main articles: Mass media in Indonesia and Indonesian literature.

Main article: Indonesian cuisine. Main article: Sport in Indonesia. Indonesia portal Asia portal Islands portal. Library of Congress.

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Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 3 February The Mataram Sultanate reached its peak of power and influence during the reign of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo between and In the Dutch established their trading headquarter in Batavia.

The internal intrigue and war of succession, in addition to Dutch interference, caused the Mataram Sultanate to break up into Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

The further separation of the Javanese realm was marked by the establishment of the Mangkunegaran and Pakualaman princedom. Although the real political power in those days actually lay with the colonial Dutch, the Javanese kings, in their keratons , still held prestige as the supposed power centre of the Javanese realm, especially in and around Surakarta and Yogyakarta.

Dutch rule was briefly interrupted by British rule in the early 19th century. While short, the British administration led by Stamford Raffles was significant, and included the re-discovery of Borobudur.

Conflict with foreign rule was exemplified by the Java War between and , and the leadership of Prince Diponegoro. With Japan's defeat, independence was proclaimed in the new Republic of Indonesia.

When the Indonesian independence was proclaimed on 17 August , the last sovereign Javanese monarchies, represented by the Sri Sultan of Yogyakarta , the Sunanate of Surakarta and Prince of Mangkunegara declared that they would become part of the Republic of Indonesia.

Yogyakarta and Pakualam were later united to form the Yogyakarta Special Region. The Sri sultan became Governor of Yogyakarta, and the Prince of Pakualaman became vice-governor; both were responsible to the President of Indonesia.

The Special Region of Yogyakarta was created after the war of independence ended and formalised on 3 August Surakarta was later absorbed as part of the Central Java province.

The Javanese culture is one of the oldest civilisations and has flourished in Indonesia. It has gradually absorbed various elements and influences from other cultures, including native reverence for ancestral and natural spirits, Hindu and Buddhist dharmic civilisation, Islamic values, and to a lesser extent, Christianity, Western philosophy and modern ideas.

Nevertheless, Javanese culture — especially in the Javanese cultural heartland; those of highly polished aristocratic culture of the keratons in Yogyakarta and Surakarta — demonstrates some specific traits, such as particular concern with elegance and refinement Javanese: alus , subtlety, politeness, courtesy, indirectness, emotional restraint and consciousness to one's social stature.

Javanese culture values harmony and social order highly, and abhors direct conflicts and disagreements. These Javanese values are often promoted through Javanese cultural expressions, such as Javanese dance , gamelan , wayang and batik.

It is also reinforced through adherence to Javanese adat traditional rules in ceremonies, such as Slametan , Satu Suro , Javanese weddings and Naloni Mitoni.

However, the culture of pesisiran of Javanese north coast and in Eastern Java demonstrates some slightly different traits.

They tend to be more open to new and foreign ideas, more egalitarian, and less conscious of one's social stature.

Some of these northern settlements — such as Demak, Kudus, Tuban, Gresik and Ampel in Surabaya — have become more overtly Islamic, traditionally because these port towns are among the earliest places that Islamic teachings gained foothold in Java.

The migrants bring with them various aspect of Javanese cultures such as Gamelan music, traditional dances [39] and the art of Wayang kulit shadow play.

Javanese is a member of the Austronesian family of languages and is closely related to, but distinct from, other languages of Indonesia. Many Javanese in Indonesia are bilingual , being fluent in Indonesian the standardized variant of the Malay language and Javanese.

The Javanese language was formerly written with a script descended from the Brahmi script , natively known as Hanacaraka or Carakan.

Upon Indonesian independence it was replaced with a form of the Latin alphabet. While Javanese was not made an official language of Indonesia, it has the status of regional language for communication in the Javanese-majority regions.

The language also can be viewed as an ethnic language because it is one of the defining characteristics of the Javanese ethnic identity.

Javanese intellectuals, writers, poets and men of letters are known for their ability to formulate ideas and creating idioms for high cultural purpose, through stringing words to express a deeper philosophical meanings.

Several philosophical idioms sprung from Javanese classical literature, Javanese historical texts and oral traditions, and have spread into several media and promoted as popular mottos.

American anthropologist Clifford Geertz divided in the s the Javanese community into three aliran or "streams": santri , abangan and priyayi.

According to him, the Santri followed an orthodox interpretation Islam , the abangan followed a syncretic form of Islam that mixed Hindu and animist elements often termed Kejawen , and the priyayi were the nobility.

The Geertz opinion is often opposed today because he mixed the social groups with belief groups. It was also difficult to apply this social categorisation in classing outsiders, for example other non- indigenous Indonesians such as persons of Arab , Chinese and Indian descent.

Today, most Javanese officially follow Islam as their religion, [47] Orthodox Muslims are most common in the northern coast bordering the Java Sea , where Islam was first brought to the island.

Islam first came in contact with Java during the Majapahit period, when they traded or made tributary relations with various states like Perlak and Samudra Pasai in modern-day Aceh.

Native Christian churches such as the Gereja Kristen Jawa also exist. On a smaller scale, Buddhism and Hinduism are also found in the Javanese community.

The Javanese of the Tengger tribe continue to practice Javanese-Hindu today, and live in villages on the slope of Mount Bromo.

Kebatinan , also called Kejawen , [49] Agama Jawa [50] and Kepercayaan [51] is a Javanese religious tradition, consisting of an amalgam of animistic , Hindu - Buddhist , and Islamic , especially Sufi , beliefs and practices.

It is rooted in Javanese history and religiosity, syncretising aspects of different religions. The Javanese calendar is used by the Javanese people concurrently with two other calendars, the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar.

The Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of Indonesia, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays.

The Javanese calendar system is currently a lunar calendar adopted by Sultan Agung in , based on the Islamic calendar.

Previously, Javanese people used a solar system based on the Hindu calendar. Unlike many other calendars, the Javanese calendar uses a 5-day week known as the Pasaran cycle.

This is still in use today and is superimposed with 7-day week of the Gregorian calendar and Islamic calendar to become what is known as the day Wetonan cycle.

Throughout their long history, the Javanese have produced many important buildings, ranging from Hindu monuments, Buddhist stupa , mortuary temples, palace complexes, and mosques.

Two important religious monuments are the Hindu temple of Prambanan and the Buddhist temple of Borobudur. Both are located near Yogyakarta in the slope of Mount Merapi.

Meanwhile, examples of secular buildings can be seen in the ruins of the former capital city of the Majapahit Kingdom 14th to 16th century AD in Trowulan , East Java.

It consists of various brick buildings, a canal ranging from 20 to 40 meters wide, purification pools, temples and iconic split gates.

Traditional Javanese buildings can be identified by their trapezoid shaped roofs supported by wooden pillars. The pillars and other parts of the buildings can be richly carved.

This architecture style can be found at kraton , or palaces, of the Sultanates of Yogyakarta palaces of Hamengkubuwono and Pakualaman and Surakarta palaces of Pakubuwono and Mangkunegaran.

Traditional mosques in Java maintain a distinctive Javanese style. The pendopo model is used as the main feature of mosques as prayer halls. A trapezoidal roof is used instead of the more typically Muslim dome.

These roofs are often multi-tiered and tiled. The Kudus Mosque is also of note because it incorporates Hindu-style stone architecture. Javanese cuisine and culture place an important role in rice , which is a staple food on the island.

Among the Javanese it is considered not to be a meal if a person hasn't eaten rice yet. Rice is also symbol of development and prosperity, while cassava and tuber is associated with poverty.

Javanese cuisine varies by region. Eastern Javanese cuisine has a preference for more salty and hot foods, [58] while the Central Javanese prefer sweeter foods.

A famous food in Javanese cuisine is Rujak Cingur , [59] marinated cow lips and noses served with vegetable, shrimp prawn and peanut sauce with chili.

Rojak Cingur is considered a traditional food in Surabaya in East Java. Gudeg is a traditional food from Yogyakarta [60] and Central Java which is made from young Nangka jack fruit boiled for several hours with palm sugar , and coconut milk.

Pecel , a type of peanut sauce with chili [61] is a common ingredient in Javanese cuisine. It is used in various types of Rujak and Gado-gado.

It can also be used as stand-alone sauce with rice, prawns, eggs and vegetables as Nasi Pecel Pecel rice. Tumpeng , is a rice served in the shape of a conical volcano , [63] usually with rice coloured yellow using turmeric.

It is an important part of many ceremonies in Java. Tumpeng is served at landmark events such as birthdays, moving house, or other ceremonies. A notable food in Java is tempeh , a meat substitute made from soybean fermented with mould.

It is a staple source of protein in Java and popular around the world as a meat substitute for vegetarians.

Javanese do not usually have family names or surnames, with only a single name. Javanese names may come from traditional Javanese languages, many of which are derived from Sanskrit.

Names with the prefix Su- , which means good , are very popular. After the advent of Islam, many Javanese began to use Arabic names, especially coast populations, where Islamic influences are stronger.

Commoners usually only have one-word names, while nobilities use two-or-more-word names, but rarely a surname.

Some people use a patronymic. Due to the influence of other cultures, many people started using names from other languages, mainly European languages.

Christian Javanese usually use Latin baptism names followed by a traditional Javanese name. In Indonesia, Javanese people can be found in all occupations, especially in the government and the military.

Traditionally, most Javanese people are farmers. Farming is especially common because of the fertile volcanic soil in Java.

The most important agricultural commodity is rice. In ancient times, the Javanese people excelled at navigating the seas and trading. This is because not all commodities can be found at the island of Java, and trading is required to fulfill the life necessities.

Javanese merchants and sailors were already in frequent voyage in the seas between India and China as early as 1st century CE.

The Javanese may have contacted Australia in 10th century AD, and migrated there, their settlement existing until early s. According to Waharu IV inscription AD and Garaman inscription AD , [71] [72] the Medang kingdom and Airlangga 's era Kahuripan kingdom — AD of Java experienced a long prosperity so that it needed a lot of manpower, especially to bring crops, packings, and send them to ports.

They arrived in the coast of Tanganyika and Mozambique with boats and attempted to take the citadel of Qanbaloh, though eventually failed.

The reason of the attack is because that place had goods suitable for their country and for China, such as ivory, tortoise shells, panther skins, and ambergris , and also because they wanted black slaves from Bantu people called Zeng or Zenj by Arabs, Jenggi by Javanese who were strong and make good slaves.

During the Majapahit era, almost all of the commodities from Asia were found in Java. This is because of extensive shipping by the Majapahit empire using various type of ships, particularly the jong , for trading to faraway places.

Ludovico di Varthema — , in his book Itinerario de Ludouico de Varthema Bolognese stated that the Southern Javanese people sailed to "far Southern lands" up to the point they arrived at an island where a day only lasted four hours long and was "colder than in any part of the world".

The Javanese people, like other Austronesian ethnicities, use a solid navigation system: Orientation at sea is carried out using a variety of different natural signs, and by using a very distinctive astronomy technique called " star path navigation ".

Basically, the navigators determine the bow of the ship to the islands that are recognized by using the position of rising and setting of certain stars above the horizon.

European colonial presence diminished the range of the Javanese merchant-sailors. However, in , Diogo de Couto confirmed that the Javanese were still in communication with the east coast of Madagascar.

In the second half of 18th century, most of the Javanese merchant-sailors were restricted to only short range travel. The Javanese were known to produce large ships called jong.

These ships already plied the seas between India and China as early as 1st century CE, carrying up to people alongside tons of cargo.

Pegu , which is a large shipbuilding port at the 16th century, also produced jong, built by Javanese who resided there.

Impressed by their ability, Albuquerque hired 60 Javanese carpenters and shipbuilders to work in Malacca for the Portuguese. The shipbuilding in Java was hampered when the VOC gained foothold in Java starting in early 17th century.

They prohibited the locals from building vessels more than 50 tons in tonnage and assigned European supervisors to shipyards.

A decorative kris with a figure of Semar as the handle. The bilah has thirteen luk. Weapons of Java: Machetes , maces, bow and arrows, blowpipe, sling.

Short swords, shields, and a matchlock gun istinggar. Blacksmiths are traditionally valued. Some blacksmiths fast and meditate to reach perfection.

Javanese blacksmiths create a range of tools and farming equipment, and also cultural items such as gamelan instruments and kris. Cannon and firearms required special expertise and may have been made by the same individuals.

The blacksmith's spiritual power was said to be transferred to the guns. Cetbang , the Javanese bronze breech-loaded swivel-gun, was used ubiquitously by the Majapahit navy, pirates, and rival lords.

The demise of the Majapahit empire also caused the flight of disaffected skilled bronze cannon-smiths to Brunei , modern Sumatra and Malaysia , and the Philippines.

This led to near universal use of the swivel-gun, especially on trade vessels to protect against pirates, in the Makassar Strait. Duarte Barbosa ca.

They make many one-pounder cannons cetbang or rentaka , long muskets, spingarde arquebus , schioppi hand cannon , Greek fire , guns cannons , and other fire-works.

Every place are considered excellent in casting artillery, and in the knowledge of using it. Zhang Xie in Dong Xi Yang Kao mentioned that city of Palembang, which has been conquered by Javanese, produces the furious fiery oil ming huo yu , which according to the Hua I Kao is a kind of tree secretion shu chin , and is also called mud oil ni yu.

Zhang Xie wrote: [96] : It much resemble camphor, and can corrode human flesh. When ignited and thrown on water, its light and flame become all the more intense.

The barbarians use it as a fire-weapon and produce great conflagrations in which sails, bulwarks, upperworks and oars all catch fire and cannot withstand it.

Fishes and tortoises coming in contact with it cannot escape from being scorched. Because there was no mention of projector pump, the weapon is probably breakable bottles with fuses.

Kris knives are important items, with many heirloom kris holding significant historical value. The design of the kris is to tear apart an opponent's abdomen, making the injury more severe.

Kota Gede is famous for its silverworks and silver handicrafts. Batiks are traditionally made by women as a pastime, but some town and villages have specialised in making batik, such as Pekalongan, Kauman, Kampung Taman and Laweyan.

The Javanese art of wood carving is traditionally applied to various cultural attributes such as statues, wayang- dolls, and masks. Woodcarving also prominent as house ornamentation and details.

The elaborately carved Omah Kudus is a fine example of Javanese woodcarving mastery. The Central Java town of Jepara is famous as a center of Javanese woodcarving workshops, where artists and carpenters especially working on Javan teak wood.

Javanese woodworkers making traditional masks during the Dutch East Indies era. The Javanese were probably involved in the Austronesian migration to Madagascar in the first centuries C.

While the culture of the migration is most closely related with the Ma'anyan people of Borneo, a portion of the Malagasy language is derived from loanwords from the Javanese language.

A Portuguese account described how the Javanese people already had advanced seafaring skills and still communicated with Madagascar in [85].

The Javanese are all men very experienced in the art of navigation, to the point that they claim to be the most ancient of all, although many others give this honor to the Chinese, and affirm that this art was handed on from them to the Javanese.

But it is certain that they formerly navigated to the Cape of Good Hope and were in communication with the east coast of the island of San Laurenzo Madagascar , where there are many brown and Javanized natives who say they are descended from them.

Since the Hindu kingdom period, Javanese merchants settled at many places in the Indonesian archipelago.

Others who refused to convert to Islam retreated to Tengger mountain , retaining their Hindu religion and becoming the Tenggerese people.

In the conflicts during the transitions of power between the Demak , the Pajang and the Mataram in the late 16th century, some Javanese migrated to Palembang in southern Sumatra.

There they established a sultanate and formed a mix of Malay and Javanese culture. A brief description of this country is given in a letter written by Chiaymasiouro to the King of Pahang and in a certificate made by Pedro de Carvalhaes at Malacca on 4 October The hair extends as far as the shoulders, the tonsure resembles the tonsure of Balinese people , with a curiously curved contour.

During the reign of Sultan Agung — , some Javanese began to establish settlements in coastal West Java around Cirebon , Indramayu and Karawang.

These Javanese settlements were originally commissioned by Sultan Agung as rice farming villages to support the Javanese troop logistics on his military campaign against Dutch Batavia.

The Javanese were also present in Peninsular Malaya since early times. Migration also took place from to from other parts of Java with a secondary migration Javanese from Sumatra.

Those migrations were to seek a new life away from the Dutch colonists who ruled Indonesia at that time. Today these people live throughout Peninsular Malaysia and are mainly concentrated in parts of Johor , Perak and Selangor and cities such as Kuala Lumpur.

Today, the Javanese of Malaysia are included in the Malay race along with other native Indonesian ethnic groups, the so-called bumiputera.

Many immigrants of the colonial period retain their Javanese identity, and the Javanese language is still spoken, although the younger generation in urban centers mostly has shifted to Malay.

Most of them have identified themselves as Malays, rather than Javanese. Javanese merchants were also present in the Maluku Islands as part of the spice trade.

Following the Islamisation of Java, they spread Islam in the islands, with Ternate being a Muslim sultanate circa New migration patterns emerged during colonial periods.

During the rise of VOC power starting in the 17th century, many Javanese were exiled, enslaved or hired as mercenaries for the Dutch colonies of Ceylon in South Asia and the Cape colony in South Africa.

These included princes and nobility who lost their dispute with the Company and were exiled along with their retinues. These, along with exiles from other ethnicities like Bugis and Malay became the Sri Lankan Malay [37] and Cape Malay [38] ethnic groups respectively.

Other political prisoners were transported to closer places. Prince Diponegoro and his followers were transported to North Sulawesi , following his defeat in Java War in the early 19th century.

Major migrations started during the Dutch colonial period under transmigration programs. The Dutch needed many labourers for their plantations and moved many Javanese under the program as contract workers, mostly to other parts of the colony in Sumatra.

They also sent Javanese workers to Suriname in South America. The transmigration program that was created by the Dutch continued following independence.

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Bce Gazdaseginformtika From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Video

BCE - Gazdaságinformatika (Forgács Benjámin) - Húsz Perc Együtt 16. rész

Like other developing countries, Indonesia began development of the Internet in the early s. Its first commercial Internet service provider , PT.

Indo Internet began operation in Jakarta in The oldest evidence of writing in the Indonesian archipelago is a series of Sanskrit inscriptions dated to the 5th century.

Many of Indonesia's peoples have firmly rooted oral traditions , which help to define and preserve their cultural identities. Early modern Indonesian literature originates in Sumatran tradition.

Balai Pustaka , the government bureau for popular literature, was instituted in to promote the development of indigenous literature.

Many scholars consider the s and s to be the Golden Age of Indonesian Literature. Indonesian cuisine is one of the most diverse, vibrant, and colourful in the world, full of intense flavour.

Spices notably chilli , coconut milk , fish and chicken are fundamental ingredients. Some popular dishes such as nasi goreng , gado-gado , sate , and soto are ubiquitous and considered as national dishes.

The Ministry of Tourism, however, chose tumpeng as the official national dish in , describing it as binding the diversity of various culinary traditions.

Sports are generally male-oriented, and spectators are often associated with illegal gambling. Indonesia is among the only five countries that have won the Thomas and Uber Cup , the world team championship of men's and women's badminton.

Along with weightlifting , it is the sport that contributes the most to Indonesia's Olympic medal tally. Liga 1 is the country's premier football club league.

Indonesia's first appearance in the AFC Asian Cup was in and successfully qualified for the next three tournaments. They, however, failed to progress through the next stage in all occasions.

Other popular sports include boxing and basketball , which has a long history in Indonesia and was part of the first National Games Pekan Olahraga Nasional , PON in In areas with a history of tribal warfare, mock fighting contests are held, such as caci in Flores and pasola in Sumba.

Pencak Silat is an Indonesian martial art and in , became one of the sporting events in the Southeast Asian Games , with Indonesia appearing as one of the leading competitors.

In Southeast Asia, Indonesia is one of the top sports powerhouses by winning the Southeast Asian Games ten times since , [] most recently in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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Main articles: Fauna of Indonesia and Flora of Indonesia. Species endemic to Indonesia. Clockwise from top: Rafflesia arnoldii , orangutan , greater bird-of-paradise , and Komodo dragon.

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Since the Hindu kingdom period, Javanese merchants settled at many places in the Indonesian archipelago. Others who refused to convert to Islam retreated to Tengger mountain , retaining their Hindu religion and becoming the Tenggerese people.

In the conflicts during the transitions of power between the Demak , the Pajang and the Mataram in the late 16th century, some Javanese migrated to Palembang in southern Sumatra.

There they established a sultanate and formed a mix of Malay and Javanese culture. A brief description of this country is given in a letter written by Chiaymasiouro to the King of Pahang and in a certificate made by Pedro de Carvalhaes at Malacca on 4 October The hair extends as far as the shoulders, the tonsure resembles the tonsure of Balinese people , with a curiously curved contour.

During the reign of Sultan Agung — , some Javanese began to establish settlements in coastal West Java around Cirebon , Indramayu and Karawang.

These Javanese settlements were originally commissioned by Sultan Agung as rice farming villages to support the Javanese troop logistics on his military campaign against Dutch Batavia.

The Javanese were also present in Peninsular Malaya since early times. Migration also took place from to from other parts of Java with a secondary migration Javanese from Sumatra.

Those migrations were to seek a new life away from the Dutch colonists who ruled Indonesia at that time. Today these people live throughout Peninsular Malaysia and are mainly concentrated in parts of Johor , Perak and Selangor and cities such as Kuala Lumpur.

Today, the Javanese of Malaysia are included in the Malay race along with other native Indonesian ethnic groups, the so-called bumiputera.

Many immigrants of the colonial period retain their Javanese identity, and the Javanese language is still spoken, although the younger generation in urban centers mostly has shifted to Malay.

Most of them have identified themselves as Malays, rather than Javanese. Javanese merchants were also present in the Maluku Islands as part of the spice trade.

Following the Islamisation of Java, they spread Islam in the islands, with Ternate being a Muslim sultanate circa New migration patterns emerged during colonial periods.

During the rise of VOC power starting in the 17th century, many Javanese were exiled, enslaved or hired as mercenaries for the Dutch colonies of Ceylon in South Asia and the Cape colony in South Africa.

These included princes and nobility who lost their dispute with the Company and were exiled along with their retinues. These, along with exiles from other ethnicities like Bugis and Malay became the Sri Lankan Malay [37] and Cape Malay [38] ethnic groups respectively.

Other political prisoners were transported to closer places. Prince Diponegoro and his followers were transported to North Sulawesi , following his defeat in Java War in the early 19th century.

Major migrations started during the Dutch colonial period under transmigration programs. The Dutch needed many labourers for their plantations and moved many Javanese under the program as contract workers, mostly to other parts of the colony in Sumatra.

They also sent Javanese workers to Suriname in South America. The transmigration program that was created by the Dutch continued following independence.

Several paguyuban traditional community organisation were formed by these Javanese immigrants, such as "Pujakesuma" abbreviation of Indonesian: Putra Jawa Kelahiran Sumatera or Sumatra-born Javanese.

Javanese people. For other uses, see Javanese disambiguation. Not to be confused with Japanese people. For other uses, see Javanese historical texts.

Main article: Javanese culture. See also: Javanese dance and Javanisation. Main article: Javanese language.

See also: Javanese script and Javanese Unicode block. Main articles: Javanese literature and Javanese poetry. See also: Religion in Indonesia.

Distribution of religious affiliation, [46] Muslims. Main articles: Kebatinan and Javanese sacred places. Main article: Javanese calendar.

Main article: Javanese traditional house. Main article: Javanese cuisine. Main article: Javanese names.

Javanese weapons and standards. A drawing of Javanese manufacturing tools, handicrafts, and musical instruments. Javanese musical instruments, many of which require the skills of blacksmith and carpenters.

Nusa antara , the southern land which Eredia claims to have discovered The name Nusa antara occurs in the Pararaton , a Javanese historical work of about the 16th century.

Crawfurd says that the expression Nusa antara denoted Madura. Malaca, Vlnde Meridionale ei le Cathay. Major thinks it was Madura.

Journal Asiatique. Tome XX. It would appear that the human tongue has a tendency to corrupt an "N" into an "L" thus "Nakhon" has become "Lakhon" Ligor and the Malay word nuri has become lory.

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Archived from the original on 23 February Retrieved 5 September Borobudur: Golden Tales of the Buddhas. Tuttle Publishing. Cambridge history of South East Asia: From early times to c.

Cambridge University Press. Bagley 31 December The Muslim world: a historical survey, Part 4. Brill Archive. Bali handbook with Lombok and the Eastern Isles: the travel guide.

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London: MacMillan. Runtuhnya kerajaan Hindu-Jawa dan timbulnya negara-negara Islam di Nusantara. Yogyakarta, Indonesia: LKiS.

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See also I. Ardika, P. Bellwood, I. Majapahit Peradaban Maritim. Suluh Nuswantara Bakti. Hakluyt Society.

Perahu-Perahu Tradisional Nusantara. Nusantara Review. Retrieved 11 June Da Asia: Nine decades. Lisbon: Regia Officina Typografica, Reprint, Lisbon, Suma Oriental.

London: The Hakluyt Society. The Javanese Crossroads. Essay of Global History. The China Review. Arts Asiatiques. The Hakluyt Society. A History of Greek Fire and Gunpowder.

JHU Press. Bradbury and Evans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 1 June The Indonesian migrations to Madagascar: making sense of the multidisciplinary evidence.

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Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Retrieved 17 February Singapore Malay community leaders estimated that some 50 to 60 percent of the community traced their origins to Java and an additional 15 to 20 percent to Bawean Island, in the Java Sea north of the city of Surabaya.

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